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These problems are taken from past quizzes and exams. Work on them
**on paper**, since the quizzes and exams you take in this
course will also be on paper.

We encourage you to complete these
problems during discussion section. Solutions will be made available
after all discussion sections have concluded. You don’t need to submit
your answers anywhere.**Note: We do not plan to cover all of
these problems during the discussion section**; the problems we don’t
cover can be used for extra practice.

`prices`

is an array of prices, in dollars, of different
products at the grocery store. Similarly, `calories`

is an
array of the calories in these same products, in the same order.

What does `type(prices[0])`

evaluate to?

`int`

`float`

`str`

The price of the first product.

**Answer:** `float`

`prices[0]`

represents the price in dollars of some
product at the grocery store. The data type should be a
`float`

because prices are numbers but not necessarily
integers.

What does `type(calories[0])`

evaluate to?

`int`

`float`

`str`

The calories in the first product.

**Answer:** `int`

Similarly, `calories[0]`

represents the calories in some
product at the grocery store. The data type should be `int`

because calories in foods are always reported as integers.

When we divide two arrays of the same length, their corresponding
elements get divided, and the result is a new array of the same length
as the two originals. In one sentence, interpret the meaning of
`min(prices / calories)`

.

**Answer:** This is the cost per calorie of the product
which has the lowest cost per calorie, which you might say is the
cheapest food to fuel up on (like instant ramen or pasta).

True or False: `min(prices / calories)`

is the same as
`max(calories / price)`

.

**Answer:** False

The former is measured in dollars per calories (a very small number), whereas the latter is measured in calories per dollar (a very big number).

However, there is a connection between these two values. The product
that has the lowest price per calorie is the same product with the most
calories per dollar. So these numbers refer to the same grocery store
product, and we can convert one value into the other by taking the
reciprocal, which swaps the numerator and denominator of a fraction.
Therefore, it’s true that `min(prices / calories)`

is the
same as `1 / max(calories / price)`

.

Consider the following four assignment statements.

```
= "5"
bass = 2
tuna = ["4.0", 5, 12.5, -10, "2023"]
sword = [4, "6", "CSE", "doc"] gold
```

What is the value of the expression `bass * tuna`

?

**Answer**: `"55"`

The average score on this problem was 48%.

Which of the following expressions results in an error?

`int(sword[0])`

`float(sword[1])`

`int(sword[2])`

`int(sword[3])`

`float(sword[4])`

**Answer**: `int(sword[0])`

The average score on this problem was 51%.

Which of the following expressions evaluates to
`"DSC10"`

?

`gold[3].replace("o", "s").title() + str(gold[0] + gold[1])`

`gold[3].replace("o", "s").upper() + str(gold[0] + int(gold[1]))`

`gold[3].replace("o", "s").upper() + str(gold[1] + int(gold[0]))`

`gold[3].replace("o", "s").title() + str(gold[0] + int(gold[1]))`

**Answer**:
`gold[3].replace("o", "s").upper() + str(gold[0] + int(gold[1]))`

The average score on this problem was 92%.

Evaluate the expression
`(np.arange(1, 7, 2.5) * np.arange(8, 2, -2))[2]`

.

**Answer:** `24.0`

This question although is daunting at first, is best solved by
breaking up the question into parts. First, let us think about the first
part, `np.arange(1, 7, 2.5)`

. In order to answer this, we
must figure out what `np.arange()`

does. What
`np.arange()`

does is it creates a `numpy`

array
that contains regularly spaces values between a start value and an end
value (start is inclusive, end is exclusive). So in this first case, our
starting value is 1, our end value is 7, and the regular interval or
step size is 2.5. So this call, `np.arange(1, 7, 2.5)`

, will
output the `numpy`

array
`np.array([1.0, 3.5, 6.0])`

because we start at 1, and
continue adding 2.5 stopping at the last value that’s less than 7. The
reason the resulting `np.array([])`

containts all
`float`

values is because one of the numbers is not an
`int`

, and all elements in the array have to have the same
data type. Now that we have evaluated the first half, let us now solve
for `np.arange(8, 2, -2)`

. Now this part may seem a little
tricky because of the negative regular interval (step size), but it is
the same logic as before. The output will simply be
`np.array([8, 6, 4])`

. In order to get that, we start at 8,
and continue to decrease our start value by 2 stopping before we reach
2. Now that we have evaluated both `np.arange(1, 7, 2.5)`

and
`np.arange(8, 2, -2)`

, it is now time to multiply.

Multiplication of two `numpy`

arrays is simply a pair wise
multiplication. So in our case, we will be multiplying
`np.array([1.0, 3.5, 6.0]) * np.array([8, 6, 4])`

, which
results to `np.array([8.0, 21.0, 24.0])`

. Again, paying
attention to the datatypes, the reason that
`np.array([8.0, 21.0, 24.0])`

contains `float`

values rather than `int`

values is because when you multiply
an `int`

by a `float`

, your answer will be a
`float`

. Now that we have evaluated
`(np.arange(1, 7, 2.5) * np.arange(8, 2, -2))`

to be
`np.array([8.0, 21.0, 24.0])`

, we now just need to access the
element in position 2, which is `24.0`

.

For the problems that follow, we will work with a dataset consisting
of various skyscrapers in the US, which we’ve loaded into a DataFrame
called `sky`

. The first few rows of `sky`

are
shown below (though the full DataFrame has more rows):

Each row of `sky`

corresponds to a single skyscraper. For
each skyscraper, we have:

its name, which is stored in the index of

`sky`

(string)the

`'material'`

it is made up of (string)the

`'city'`

in the US where it is located (string)the number of

`'floors'`

(levels) it contains (int)its

`'height'`

in meters (float), andthe

`'year'`

in which it was opened (int)

Below, identify the data type of the result of each of the following expressions, or select “error” if you believe the expression results in an error.

`'height') sky.sort_values(`

int or float

Boolean

string

array

Series

DataFrame

error

**Answer:** DataFrame

`sky`

is a DataFrame. All the `sort_values`

method does is change the order of the rows in the Series/DataFrame it
is called on, it does not change the data structure. As such,
`sky.sort_values('height')`

is also a DataFrame.

The average score on this problem was 87%.

`'height').get('material').loc[0] sky.sort_values(`

int or float

Boolean

string

array

Series

DataFrame

error

**Answer:** error

`sky.sort_values('height')`

is a DataFrame, and
`sky.sort_values('height').get('material')`

is a Series
corresponding to the `'material'`

column, sorted by
`'height'`

in increasing order. So far, there are no
errors.

Remember, the `.loc`

*accessor* is used to access
elements in a Series based on their index.
`sky.sort_values('height').get('material').loc[0]`

is asking
for the element in the
`sky.sort_values('height').get('material')`

Series with index
0. However, the index of `sky`

is made up of building names.
Since there is no building named `0`

, `.loc[0]`

causes an error.

The average score on this problem was 79%.

`'height').get('material').iloc[0] sky.sort_values(`

int or float

Boolean

string

array

Series

DataFrame

error

**Answer:** string

As we mentioned above,
`sky.sort_values('height').get('material')`

is a Series
containing values from the `'material'`

column (but sorted).
Remember, there is no element in this Series with an index of 0, so
`sky.sort_values('height').get('material').loc[0]`

errors.
However, `.iloc[0]`

works differently than
`.loc[0]`

; `.iloc[0]`

will give us the first
element in a Series (independent of what’s in the index). So,
`sky.sort_values('height').get('material').iloc[0]`

gives us
back a value from the `'material'`

column, which is made up
of strings, so it gives us a string. (Specifically, it gives us the
`'material'`

type of the skyscraper with the smallest
`'height'`

.)

The average score on this problem was 89%.

`'floors').max() sky.get(`

int or float

Boolean

string

array

Series

DataFrame

error

**Answer:** int or float

The Series `sky.get('floors')`

is made up of integers, and
`sky.get('floors').max()`

evaluates to the largest number in
the Series, which is also an integer.

The average score on this problem was 91%.

`0] sky.index[`

int or float

Boolean

string

array

Series

DataFrame

error

**Answer:** string

`sky.index`

contains the values
`'Bayard-Condict Building'`

,
`'The Yacht Club at Portofino'`

,
`'City Investing Building'`

, etc. `sky.index[0]`

is then `'Bayard-Condict Building'`

, which is a string.

The average score on this problem was 91%.

Write a single line of code that evaluates to the name of the tallest
skyscraper in the `sky`

DataFrame.

**Answer:**
`sky.sort_values(by='height', ascending=False).index[0]`

In order to answer this question, we must first sort the values of
the column we are interested in. As such, we sort the entire DataFrame
by the `height`

column, and because we are interested in the
name of the tallest building, we should set the `ascending`

parameter to `False`

because we would like the heights to be
ordered in descending order, thus leading to the line
`sky.sort_values(by='height', ascending=False)`

. After
sorting in descending order, we know that the tallest building is going
to be the first row of the new `sky`

DataFrame, and thus we
now only need to get the name of the skyscraper, which happens to be in
the index. In order to access the index of the DataFrame we can use
`sky.index`

, and in our case because we know that we want the
first index, we would need to write `sky.index[0]`

. Finally,
putting it all together, in order to get the name of the tallest
skyscraper in the `sky`

DataFrame, we would need to write
`sky.sort_values(by='Height', ascending=False).index[0]`

.

Write a single line of code that evaluates to the average number of floors across all skyscrapers in the DataFrame.

**Answer:** `sky.get('floors').mean()`

In order to answer the question, we must first figure out how to get
the number of floors each skyscraper has. We can do this with a line of
code like `sky.get('floors')`

which will get the number of
floors each skyscraper has. After doing this, we now need to find out
the average number of floors each skyscraper has. We can do this by
using the `.mean()`

method, which in our case will get the
average number of floors each skyscraper has. Putting this all togther,
we get a line of code that looks like
`sky.get('floors').mean()`

.

Consider the following assignment statement.

`= np.array([5, 9, 13, 17, 21]) puffin `

Provide arguments to call `np.arange`

with so that the
array `penguin`

is identical to the array
`puffin`

.

`= np.arange(____) penguin `

**Answer**: We need to provide `np.arange`

with three arguments: 5, anything in (21,
25], 4. For instance, something line
`penguin = np.arange(5, 25, 4)`

would work.

The average score on this problem was 90%.

Fill in the blanks so that the array `parrot`

is also
identical to the array `puffin`

.

*Hint: Start by choosing* `y`

*so that*
`parrot`

*has length 5.*

`= __(x)__ * np.arange(0, __(y)__, 2) + __(z)__ parrot `

**Answer**:

`x`

:`2`

`y`

: anything in (8, 10]`z`

:`5`

The average score on this problem was 74%.

Suppose `students`

is a DataFrame of all students who took
DSC 10 last quarter. `students`

has one row per student,
where:

The index contains students’ PIDs as strings starting with

`"A"`

.The

`"Overall"`

column contains students’ overall percentage grades as floats.The

`"Animal"`

column contains students’ favorite animals as strings.

What type is `students.get("Overall")`

? If this expression
errors, select “this errors."

float

string

array

Series

this errors

**Answer**: Series

The average score on this problem was 73%.

What type is `students.get("PID")`

? If this expression
errors, select “this errors."

float

string

array

Series

this errors

**Answer**: this errors

The average score on this problem was 67%.

Vanessa is one student who took DSC 10 last quarter. Her PID is A12345678, she earned the sixth-highest overall percentage grade in the class, and her favorite animal is the giraffe.

Supposing that `students`

is already sorted by
`"Overall"`

in **descending** order, fill in the
blanks so that `animal_one`

and `animal_two`

**both** evaluate to `"giraffe"`

.

```
= students.get(__(x)__).loc[__(y)__]
animal_one = students.get(__(x)__).iloc[__(z)__] animal_two
```

**Answer**:

`x`

:`"Animal"`

`y`

:`"A12345678"`

`z`

:`5`

The average score on this problem was 69%.

If `students`

wasn’t already sorted by
`"Overall"`

in descending order, which of your answers would
need to change?

Neither

`y`

nor`z`

would need to changeBoth

`y`

and`z`

would need to change`y`

only`z`

only

**Answer**: `z`

only

The average score on this problem was 82%.

You are given a DataFrame called `sports`

, indexed by
`'Sport'`

containing one column,
`'PlayersPerTeam'`

. The first few rows of the DataFrame are
shown below:

Sport | PlayersPerTeam |
---|---|

baseball | 9 |

basketball | 5 |

field hockey | 11 |

Which of the following evaluates to
`'basketball'`

?

`sports.loc[1]`

`sports.iloc[1]`

`sports.index[1]`

`sports.get('Sport').iloc[1]`

**Answer: ** `sports.index[1]`

We are told that the DataFrame is indexed by `'Sport'`

and
`'basketball'`

is one of the elements of the index. To access
an element of the index, we use `.index`

to extract the index
and square brackets to extract an element at a certain position.
Therefore, `sports.index[1]`

will evaluate to
`'basketball'`

.

The first two answer choices attempt to use `.loc`

or
`.iloc`

directly on a DataFrame. We typically use
`.loc`

or `.iloc`

on a Series that results from
using `.get`

on some column. Although we don’t typically do
it this way, it is possible to use `.loc`

or
`.iloc`

directly on a DataFrame, but doing so would produce
an entire row of the DataFrame. Since we want just one word,
`'basketball'`

, the first two answer choices must be
incorrect.

The last answer choice is incorrect because we can’t use
`.get`

with the index, only with a column. The index is never
considered a column.

The average score on this problem was 88%.

Suppose you are given a DataFrame of employees for a given company.
The DataFrame, called `employees`

, is indexed by
`'employee_id'`

(string) with a column called
`'years'`

(int) that contains the number of years each
employee has worked for the company.

Suppose that the code

`='years', ascending=False).index[0] employees.sort_values(by`

outputs `'2476'`

.

True or False: The number of years that employee 2476 has worked for the company is greater than the number of years that any other employee has worked for the company.

True

False

**Answer: ** False

This is false because there could be other employees who worked at the company equally long as employee 2476.

The code says that when the `employees`

DataFrame is
sorted in descending order of `'years'`

, employee 2476 is in
the first row. There might, however, be a tie among several employees
for their value of `'years'`

. In that case, employee 2476 may
wind up in the first row of the sorted DataFrame, but we cannot say that
the number of years employee 2476 has worked for the company is greater
than the number of years that any other employee has worked for the
company.

If the statement had said *greater than or equal to* instead
of *greater than*, the statement would have been true.

The average score on this problem was 29%.

What will be the output of the following code?

```
=2021-employees.get('years'))
employees.assign(start='start').index.iloc[-1] employees.sort_values(by
```

the employee id of an employee who has worked there for the most years

the employee id of an employee who has worked there for the fewest years

an error message complaining about

`iloc[-1]`

an error message complaining about something else

**Answer: ** an error message complaining about
something else

The problem is that the first line of code does not actually add a
new column to the `employees`

DataFrame because the
expression is not saved. So the second line tries to sort by a column,
`'start'`

, that doesn’t exist in the `employees`

DataFrame and runs into an error when it can’t find a column by that
name.

This code also has a problem with `iloc[-1]`

, since
`iloc`

cannot be used on the index, but since the problem
with the missing `'start'`

column is encountered first, that
will be the error message displayed.

The average score on this problem was 27%.